FONI BINTANG KARANAI DISTRICT REHAB TOUR, WEST COAST REGION, THE GAMBIA 

FONI BINTANG KARANAI DISTRICT REHAB TOUR, WEST COAST REGION, THE GAMBIA 

FONI BINTANG KARANAI DISTRICT REHAB TOUR, WEST COAST REGION, THE GAMBIA 

Foni Bintang-Karenai is one of the nine districts of the Gambia’s West Coast Region, which is located on the south of the Gambia River in the southwest of the country. Foni Bintang-Karenai is in the central south of the Region, between Foni Kansala and Foni Brefet. This district is dominated by the Jola tribe and some Fula as well as Mandinka tribes. The vast majority of people in the district are subsistence farmers, growing groundnut, maize and millet with some communities notably women engaged in collecting and selling wild herbs for traditional medicinal purposes. Herbs locally called “Mborr Mborr, Kinkiliba and sangfito” are commonly associated with this district. It still keeps traditional tribal culture and it also served as a source of typical Jola and Mandinka tribe history and traditional way of life. The district is also the home of an old Mandinka love poem called “Masannehsisay Bintang Bolong daala”. This love poem was played by the local griots of the district called “Jali” depicting the love life of a powerful man believed to possess mystic powers and a woman from a lower inferior caste possessed by evil.

However, the district is prone to illegal deforestation, especially in rosewood among others. The area is also prone to wildfires and as a result, this has led to the scarcity of fresh drinking water. According to Global Forest Watch reports, in 2010, the district had 243ha of tree cover, extending over 1.7% of its land area. In 2021, it lost 225mha of tree cover, equivalent to 76.5t of CO2 emissions. In Foni Bintang Karanai District, the peak fire season typically begins in mid-February and lasts around 12 weeks. All these factors have made life harder for the indigenous tribes that live within the district especially when it comes to clean drinking water. The district also borders with the Senegalese region of Cassamance which has been the center of separatist rebel conflict for four decades. As a result, it hosts hundreds of refugees which added more stress to the already alarming clean water crisis the district faces. The border between Casamance and The Gambia is long and porous. There are no official border crossings and people move from one side to the other with little restriction. Border communities are historically interlinked, most notably through inter-marriage, and have been partaking in the same social norms and customs since pre-colonial times. The influx of refugees earlier this year has made the water crisis worst in the district. Although a huge chunk of the refugees has gone back since the tensions have eased, but clean drinking water scarcity still remains to hunt communities. 

This rehabilitation tour will provide access to clean drinking water for thousands of people directly. It will have a great impact on their health and social habitation in general. It will tremendously benefit women and girls as they bear the brunt of water collection within the household. It will make girls enrich their potential at school and also help women enrich their potential socially and economically especially at the household level, as at the moment they spend a huge amount of time in water collection daily. It will also forge harmony and understanding among members of communities, as at times quarrels and scuffles occur during water collection. 

1. BATABUT KANTORA VILLAGE 

GPS: N13°12.375 W016°09.524 

Population: 550 

2 Conversion heads, 2 new cylinders (twin pump), 8 centralizers, 2 stainless steel pipes, hand washing station, the contractor will construct a new water trough for the village ruminants to drink from, which will help the community economically. 

Batabut Kantora village is located along the Trans-Gambia South Bank Road. It is a Mandinka tribe community of roughly 550 people. It is a subsistence farming community growing groundnut and millet. According to sources, the community consists of the “Bujiran Kailandang” clan who hailed from the “Koringolu” of the ancient Kaabu Kingdom in the 18th century. 

The community is facing a severe water crisis as it’s population cannot cope with the only water source available. 

2. GIBANACK VILLAGE 

GPS: N13°12.876 W016°08.376  

Population: 180 

1 conversion, 1 cylinder, 1 stainless steel pipe, hand washing station. The contractor will construct a new trough for the village ruminants to drink from, which will help the community economically  

Gibanack village is located about 2 km north of Arangallen Village along the Trans-Gambia South Bank Road. The community is primarily made up of the Manjago tribe who originally migrated from Guinea Bissau during the PIGC war for independence from Portugal. The community is a subsistence farming community, growing millet, corn and groundnut with a handful of them engaged in fishing tilapia along the banks of The River Gambia. The only water source in the community has been broken for a long time and they currently depend on neighboring villages like Arangallen for water, which has resulted in a severe water crisis for the community. 

3. JAKO VILLAGE 

GPS: N13°13.698 W016°10.431 

Population: 350 

2 New cylinders, 2 conversion heads (twin pumps), 2 stainless steel pipes, dewatering and sanitizing the well, plus a hand washing station. The contractor will construct a new trough for the village ruminants to drink from, which will help the community economically 

This village is about 4 km north of Sibanor along the Trans-Gambia south bank road. It is a Jola and Mandinka tribe community. The community depends on subsistence farming mainly growing groundnut, millet, and corn. The community is also known for the collection of traditional medicinal healing herbs in the bush which women notably sell for livelihood. The community’s only water source is broken and as a result it is facing water crisis for a long time. People travel about miles daily to neighboring villages in search of clean drinking water for their families. 

4. MANYINA VILLAGE 

GPS: N13°12.495 W016°12.312 

Population: 400  

1 Conversion head, new cylinder, 2 stainless steel pipes, re-digging the well extra 2 meters, de-watering and sanitizing well, hand washing station, new concrete slab. The contractor will construct a new water trough for the village ruminants to drink from, which will help the community economically. 

Manyina Village is located along the Trans-Gambia South Bank Road. It is quite close to Sibanor. It is Mandinka tribe settlement and a subsistence farming community growing millet, rice and groundnut with a handful of women engaged in collecting medicinal herbs in the bush for economic gains. The community is faced with a water crisis. It has only one handpump serving the entire village and as a result of the high pressure it keeps breaking down due to poor standard parts and repair. This makes the villagers to depend on their neighboring village of Sibanor which is often not accepted by the Sibanor community.  

5. KABOKORR VILLAGE 

GPS: N13°22.274 W016°14.998 

Population: 750 

New cylinder, conversion head, dewatering and sanitizing well, 2 meters re-digging, rod couplings. 6 stainless steel pipes, 6 centralizers, and hand washing station, the contractor will construct a new trough for the village ruminants to drink from, which will help the community economically  

Kabokorr village is situated east of Tampoto, and west of Killy Village along the Trans-Gambia South Bank Road. The community consists of Jola and Mandinka tribes living harmoniously together. The community is a subsistence farming community, growing groundnut, millet, and rice. Rice remains the most commonly grown food in the community, especially among women who sell the proceeds for the sustenance of their families and certain social functions. The Village has been suffering from a lack of clean drinking water due to a large number of people within the community, especially during the rainy season when their open wells got damaged by rain runoff. The current water source is not enough to serve the entire village. 

6. KANUMA VILLAGE 

GPS: N13°13.822 W016°16.441 

Population: 400 

1 Conversion head, 1 new cylinder, check-nuts, rod couplings, 5 centralizers, hand washing station, the contractor will construct a new water trough for the village ruminants to drink from, which will help the community economically. 

Kanuma Village is located about 5 km north of Tampoto along the Trans-Gambia South Bank Road. It is a Mandinka tribe community of roughly 400 people. They are the descendants of the Biyayi clan who migrated from the ancient Kaabu Kingdom. The village is a historical place for several Manneh, Sanneh and Sanyang families. The community is a subsistence farming community growing groundnut, millet and corn. It is well known for producing traditional farming implements like “doumo and kobirango”. The community’s water source has broken down for a long while now, as a result, the community is currently depending on neighboring villages of Nyangit for water, which is about 2 kilometers away and they are often given a frown face there anytime they come collecting water. This has often resulted in scuffles and quarrels between the two neighboring communities. 

7. BUNIADOU VILLAGE 

GPS: N13°12.051 W016°11.822 

Population: 250 

1 conversion, 3 meters extra re-digging, 3 culverts, dewatering and sanitizing the well, ground concrete fortification, concrete slab, 1 stainless steel pipe, hand washing station. The contractor will construct a new trough for the village ruminants to drink from, which will help the community economically  

Buniadou village is located on the outskirts of Sibanor along the Trans-Gambia South Bank Road. It is a Fula tribe community that migrated from the East of the country in search of pasture and better life. The community is a subsistence farming community growing groundnut, millet, and rearing of animals notably cows for sustenance. The community has only one water source which has been broken for a long time and they currently depend on Sibanor and other open wells for drinking. This water crisis has led to illness among the community members as some of them consume contaminated open well waters. 

8. KILLY VILLAGE 

GPS: N13°12.422 W016°13.942 

Population: 950 

New cylinder, 1 conversion head, rod couplings (stainless steel), dewatering and sanitizing the well, plus hand washing station. The contractor will construct a new trough for the village ruminants to drink from, which will help the community economically 

Killy village is located along the Trans-Gambia south bank road. The community consists of the Jola and Mandinka tribes. The community depends on subsistence farming mainly growing groundnut, millet, and corn. Women also collect traditional medicinal herbs from the bush and usually sell them at weekly markets called “Loumo”. This helps in household sustenance and other social activities. The community is facing a severe water crisis as the current water source is not enough for the community leading to so many households depending on contaminated open wells which have serious health effects on their health. The refugee crisis earlier in the year when war broke out in the Cassamance, also put a heavy burden on the community’s water issue. 

9. BAJAGAR VILLAGE 

GPS: N13°12.054 W016°07.259 

Population: 700  

2 Conversion heads, 2 new cylinders, concrete slab, de-watering and sanitizing well, hand washing station, new concrete slab. The contractor will construct a new water trough for the village ruminants to drink from, which will help the community economically. 

Bajagar is the last village within the Foni Bintang Karanai district bordering Foni Kansala District. It is located along the Trans-Gambia South Bank Road. The community has tremendous history and culture, especially among the Jola tribesmen. The traditional Jola initiation festival called “Futampaf’’ is also popular in this village dating back centuries ago. The community is faced with a water crisis as the current water source is not enough. This has led to many people using contaminated open wells which has detrimental health effects. The recent rainy season has caused the collapse of wells due to heavy downpours and erosion.

10. BATENDENG VILLAGE 

GPS: N13°15.358 W016°18.927 

Population: 350 

1 New cylinder, 1 conversion head, dewatering and sanitizing well, rod couplings. 1 stainless steel pipe, 6 centralizers, hand washing station, the contractor will construct a new trough for the village ruminants to drink from, which will help the community economically  

This Village is located about 8km north of Somita Village along the Trans-Gambia South Bank Road. The community is a Mandinka tribe settlement. It is a remote community and a subsistence farming one as well, growing groundnut, millet, and corn. The Village has been suffering from a lack of water since its water source has been broken for a long time. As a result, the community sorted to using open wells which makes some people sick, especially among women and children. This has affected their daily life too.

FONI BREFET DISTRICT REHAB TOUR (PHASE 1) – The Gambia

FONI BREFET DISTRICT REHAB TOUR (PHASE 1) – The Gambia

FONI BREFET DISTRICT REHAB TOUR (PHASE 1) – The Gambia

WEST COAST REGION, THE GAMBIA 

Foni Brefet  is one of the nine districts  of  the Gambia, which is located to the south of the Gambia River in the southwest of the country. Foni Brefet is in the center of the region, between Kombo East and Foni Bintang-Karenai. This district is dominated by the Jola tribe and some Fula as well as Mandinka tribes. The vast majority of people in the district are subsistence farmers, growing groundnut, maize, and millet. It still keeps traditional tribal culture and it also serves as a source of typical Jola tribe history and traditional way of life. However, the district is prone to illegal deforestation, especially in rosewood among others. The area is also prone to wildfires and as a result, this has led to a scarcity of fresh drinking water. According to Global Forest Watch reports, in 2010, the district had 243ha of tree cover, extending over 1.7% of its land area. In 2021, it lost 225mha of tree cover, equivalent to 76.5t of CO2 emissions. In Foni Brefet District, the peak fire season typically begins in mid-February and lasts around 12 weeks. All these factors have made life harder for the indigenous tribes that live within the district especially when it comes to clean drinking water. The district also borders the Senegalese region of Cassamance which has been the center of separatist rebel conflict for four decades. As a result, it hosts hundreds of refugees which added more stress to the already alarming clean water crisis the district faces. 

This rehabilitation tour will give access to clean drinking water for 9,559 people directly. This will have a great impact on their health and social habitation in general. It will tremendously benefit women and girls as they bear the brunt of water collection within the household.  The work will also help all the people who visit or pass through the region, and the hundreds of Senegalese refugees that are currently located there.

This project is part of our ongoing Water For Everyone Intiative. WFE Gambia has been going for a number of years now and is on track to service every village and every well in the country on schedule.

  1. JALOKOTO VILLAGE 

GPS: N13°12.393 W016°17.395 

Population: 1500 

4 stainless steel pipes with rods, new conversion head, pedestal, check-nuts, dewatering and sanitizing the well, and a hand washing station. The contractor will construct a new trough for the village ruminants to drink from, which will help the community economically.

 

  1. SOMITA VILLAGE VILLAGE 

GPS: N13°12.299 W016°18.139 

Population: 1900  

2 Conversion heads, a new cylinder, a hand washing station, and new concrete round fencing. The contractor will construct a new water trough for the village ruminants to drink from, which will help the community economically. 

  1. NDEMBAN JOLA VILLAGE 

GPS: N13°10.931 W016°20.614 

Population: 450 

2 New cylinders, 2 conversion heads, 4 stainless steel pipes, concrete slab, and a hand washing station. The contractor will construct a new trough for the village ruminants to drink from, which will help the community economically.  

 

  1. BULLOCK VILLAGE 

GPS: N13°10.840 W016°24.752 

Population: 1800 

New cylinder, conversion head, concrete slab, 2 culverts, hand washing station, rod couplings. The contractor will construct a new trough for the village ruminants to drink from, which will help the community economically  

 

  1. BAJANA VILLAGE 

GPS: N13°11.260 W016°23.709 

Population: 850 

2 New cylinders, rod couplings (stainless steel),2 conversion heads, plus a hand washing station. The contractor will construct a new trough for the village ruminants to drink from, which will help the community economically 

 

  1. SUTUSINJANG VILLAGE 

GPS: N13°11.239 W016°23.157 

Population: 500 

New cylinder, conversion head hand washing station, rod couplings. The contractor will construct a new trough for the village ruminants to drink from, which will help the community economically  

  1. JAGIL VILLAGE 

GPS: N13°11.523 W016°22.109 

Population: 400 

New cylinder, conversion head, 5 stainless steel pipes, concrete slab, Re-digging and dewatering well, hand washing station. The contractor will construct a new trough for the village ruminants to drink from, which will help the community economically.

 

  1. BREFET VILLAGE 

GPS: N13°14.845 W016°22.851 

Population: 750  

Conversion head, new cylinder, 1 culvert, hand washing station, new concrete slab. The contractor will construct a new water trough for the village ruminants to drink from, which will help the community economically. 

 

  1. NDEMBAN JAPIHUIM VILLAGE 

GPS: N13°12.210 W016°20.310 

Population: 450 

2 New cylinders, 2 conversion head, 1 stainless steel pipes, re-digging and dewatering of well, hand washing station. The contractor will construct a new trough for the village ruminants to drink from, which will help the community economically  

 

These projects range from around 50 cents per person served up to around 3 or 4 dollars. It depends on what exactly is wrong and what needs to be done. Contact us for detailed project costs.

It is possible to adopt a village well, even long-term. We do have an anonymous donor, though, who is likely to pay for all of these wells unless someone else steps up beforehand. Tours like this are ongoing. So, any funds collected in excess of the actual cost will roll over to the next village handpump tour in The Gambia. 

The timeline will be 2 or 3 weeks depending on the weather and local conditions, parts availability, etc.

The results will be as they always are with these projects.  The handpumps will be brought to full repair and provide their villages with clean water once again.  This, of course, will have numerous beneficial effects for the village.  Waterborne Illness will go down drastically with incidence of diarrhea falling to negligible levels.  The hours the women and girls of the village currently spend walking to distant water points will be used for other purposes, including allowing more girls to stay in school and get educations.  It will also result in a lot less deforestation… as people will no longer need to boil water from the rivers and streams.

The sustainability of these projects is insured as we are in contact with each of the village elders and if they should require our help in the future, they can alert us forthwith.  Furthermore, we try to instill ownership and responsibility for the water point in every village.  We gather the Water Use Committee and give them tips on preservation and maintenance of their handpump.  We also encourage them to collect and save a small amount of money for simple repairs.  Often if a pump fails the initial cost is an inexpensive grommet or bushing.  Left unchecked, the entire well fails and inevitably rust-out or otherwise require a much more expensive intervention. Having the WFE B2B program ensures that we will always be available and hands-on in every village until such time as there are no villages doing without any longer.

Water for Everyone – Madagascar

Water for Everyone – Madagascar

Water for Everyone – Madagascar

Coming off recent success in The Gambia and Liberia, Water Charity is embarked on another Water for Everyone Project in Madagascar. We have been active in Madagascar from early on in WC history, having sponsored many dozens of projects in recent years and touched hundreds of villages. Our primary intervention there has been in the rehabilitation of broken wells first, and the drilling of new wells where necessary.

Madagascar is well-suited for a Water for Everyone Program. Only half the population has access to clean water and much of that population lies in rural communities. Most rely on subsistence farming and fishing for their livelihood. Forty-three percent of adults lack proper nutrition and forty-eight percent of children under five suffer from stunted growth. There have been other projects to address water availability in cities and larger villages, but the rural populations still have a long way to go, and this is where our focus lies.

The challenges are as varied as the mini continent that forms Madagascar. The center of the country is formed by mountainous highlands dominated by igneous basements, making the search for subsurface water quite difficult. The coasts are rimmed with sedimentary rock and carbonates and are slightly more conducive for water drilling. The north and east are largely semi-tropical while the south and southwest are arid. It seems that climate change has made conditions worse in the south where water is lacking even for agricultural purposes, and malnutrition and starvation are widespread.

Many attempts over the years have been made to mitigate the water problem. There are literally thousands of broken wells across the country that have fallen into disrepair. One objective of this project is to find and identify these wells, assess their potential, and design programs to put them back in service. Our partners, local residents of the various regions, are our force on the ground to collect these data points. Water Charity uses GIS data and our Geospatial analysis capabilities to identify needs, and gaps in infrastructure, and design specific and targeted programs to get water to those in need. It is expected the entire project could take a few years, but we are confident that all rural villages can be provided with at least one working well and given the skills to maintain them.

Our local Malagasy partners and The Madagascar Water Project (MWP), have extensive connections and knowledge about the country, the languages and dialects spoken, and are a key piece of the puzzle for this ambitious program.  We have worked with them for many years, drilling dozens of wells and repairing countless broken ones to provide clean water to thousands of people.  This program has begun along the east coast and will expand to include rural regions all over, with the goal of eventually including the entire county.  We will not deal with cities and the larger towns for this B2B effort, as there are existing infrastructure issues and the problems are entirely different. WFE Madagascar is solely focused on the rural villages, at least for now.

Goals and Methods of Water for Everyone

The Madagascar Water for Everyone Project is designed to achieve the goals of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 and the Plan Emergence Madagascar Priorate 29.

  • United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 6.1: By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all. 
  • Plan Emergence Madagascar Priorite 29 – Garantirl’acces universal a l’eau potable (French is a main language for government there)

The Project combines the latest technology in satellite mapping with an extensive ground-based data collection effort.  The Program will conduct inventories and is documenting existing water infrastructure. We are assessing functionality and adequacy to the populations served and can thus identify under-served populations where they exist. Population data, water-related health data, agricultural and irrigation data, and water infrastructure and water quality data has been collected from local officials when available, and we will continue to work with these agencies as closely as we can.

All our projects (in this program and out) involve extensive documentation. Well location data is recorded using GPS-enabled devices, this data is combined with various survey and government-provided information and cross-referenced with other aid groups and NGOs. We have webpages put up regularly (see page bottom for links) and update them with new info and media from the field. While this is usually done with incredible speed, we can not always keep pages up to date in real-time and it may take us some weeks to post recent work.

Water Charity integrates population, infrastructure, health, and other data collected on the ground into Geographic Information System (GIS) map-based platform including ArcGIS and Earth Engine. This makes it possible to 1) identify and quantify gaps in water infrastructure; 2) design specific and targeted projects to improve clean water access 3) put them in a format that can be presented to potential sponsors and operators and 4) track their impact over time. Projects coming up include newly drilled wells, repair of existing wells, and the repairs, maintenance, and upgrades of a larger infrastructure. Some areas will be prioritized based on their specific needs. 

The Project began in the Region of Antsinanana and continues into other Regions of Madagascar on pace.

The Madagascar Water Project:  an overview

Since 2015, WFE Madagascar & the Madagascar Water Project have drilled about 200 water wells in about 80 rural villages, providing clean water to an estimated 100,000 people.  Starting around Antsinanana, the work has migrated to the south over time and the well drilling work can now be found as far south as Mananjary.  To aid in this effort, WC funded the purchase of a dedicated well drilling rig over the summer of 2022. This new rig can be expected to function for many years to come with minimal maintenance and should increase the ability of MWP and the WFE program to aid the people with new wells, deepening existing wells, and even clearing debris that has come to block wells that otherwise should be functional.

We have also started a well repair program in the drought-stricken south to fix some of the thousands of broken wells located there. These well repairs have been our bread and butter in the past. and will continue to be a major part of what we do there. After all, fixing a broken well is nearly always more efficient than drilling a new well and installing a brand-new handpump.

Like many of our partners around the world, MWP is small, lean, active, and impactful. The photo below was taken in 2018 during one of our joint ventures that included the village of Salehy. This is the same core group that has supported our Water for Everyone Program all along the way, and will continue to lead the way on the ground. (note their cool Water Charity T-Shirts).

Except for Director, Frederick Rittelmeyer (3rd from left above), who works as an unpaid volunteer, the entire staff is Malagasy. As the photo shows, they are quite proud of their association with Water Charity, and it has been mutually beneficial for all. The gentleman in the foreground, Hilaire Razandrafely is the MWP Project Manager for the Madagascar Water for Everyone Project. Photo, Salehy 2019.

The Madagascar Water Project drilled its first well in the village of Andovoranto in 2015. That well is shown in the photo left and is still working today. We remain committed to the villages it serves and provides maintenance training, repairs, and spare parts for its wells. If the well fails, which occasionally happens, the MWP drills replacement wells when needed.  Photo, Andovoranto 2015.

So far, WC has drilled most of its wells along the east coast, along an intra-coastal waterway known as the Pangalana Channel. To many, the area looks like paradise, but many villages had no access to clean water, which has a profoundly negative impact on the health of those living there. With the help of the MWP, the area at least has taken a small step forward into the 20th Century.

Due to the amenable conditions, we can use hand augers and slide hammers to build wells. In most cases, this takes only a few hours. Standard pitcher pumps are used and can produce at rates up to 25 liters/minute from depths to 7 meters.

The Project provides community-based water wells, managed by Well Management Committees. The MWP provides guidance but ultimately rules, hours, and fees (if any) are determined by the committee.

Effective self-management is key to sustainability and is often more difficult than drilling the well. The line between assistance and dependency is as thin and delicate as a piece of thread.

MWP Logistics

One of the biggest challenges working in Madagascar is logistics. Roads are in poor repair and often nonexistent even when they appear on a map. The Water for Everyone Project will have to overcome these challenges even more.  One can choose where to drill wells, but the mission of the Water for Everyone Project is to go everywhere.

MWP History

The first wells began drilling in the village of Andovoranto in 2015. The work migrated southward every year, eventually moving past the village of Mananjary in 2020.   

Water Charity believes that maintenance and repairs are as critical to the program as newly drilled wells. These long-term relationships are more efficient, and create less oversight and maintenance, and, in the end, leave the communities with better, more efficient, and equitable water management.

Well Repair Program in Southern Madagascar

In 2022 WFE Madagascar began a large well-repair program in southern Madagascar. The entire southern section of the country has suffered from extreme drought for more than 10 years. Not only does it affect water availability, but it has also caused widespread famine. Malnutrition and starvation are everywhere.

Thousands of water wells have been drilled there in the past few decades. Although most are now broken, some are still capable of being repaired to provide clean water, any water to those in need.

The map below shows the current area of focus in the District of Betroka.

Some wells are conventional Indian Pumps that need routine repairs or have been victims of theft such as the well below in Anabinda. 

Photo Anabinda 2022

Other broken wells exist as holes in the ground. The project has installed our conventional pumps onto these wells and successfully brought them back into production. They are used as much for agricultural purposes as they are for human consumption. Each well is saving lives and improving the quality of life for many.

The pumps are taken off each night to protect them from theft.

Water access is often a key component of famine. On a trip in February 2021, we deviated from our mission and distributed 350 kg of rice to a few villages that hadn’t eaten in weeks. The World Food Program, USAID, other NGOs, and the Madagascar Government have since come in to provide more assistance. 

Conclusion 

There is so much to do in Madagascar that a systematic, thorough, complete, and scientific approach is the best way to assess the needs, design solutions, and provide relief to the many millions still in need of clean water. The Water for Everyone Initiative is a significant move in that direction.

Join Us

List of Water Charity’s Past Madagascar Project Pages: 

13 water wells were drilled in six villages that now provide clean water to over 15,000 people. The project area is south of the Mangoro River (Salehy), through Masomeloka to Nosy Varika and beyond, moving into the remote area where the distal ends of the Regions of Antsinanana and Fianarantsoa meet. 

Built a community well at the school in Andrenilaivelo, a livestock and farming community of approximately 250 people located in the central highlands of Madagascar. 

Built 2 latrines at the primary school in the village of Amindratombo. Amindratombo is part of the community of Sahambavy, located in the southern highlands of Madagascar. The project will benefit 200 students. 

Build a well at the primary school in the village of Amindratombo. The well will be used to provide drinking water for the students. Amindratombo is part of the community of Sahambavy, located in the southern highlands of Madagascar. The project will benefit the 200 students plus indirect beneficiaries numbering about 1,500: 1,700 total. 

Repair and improve the well at the Maternity and Health Center in the community of Ansampanimahazo is located 9 km from its district Faratsiho in the northern highlands of Madagascar. The population consists of approximately 15,000 people spread across 12 villages.  

Build 4 wells in the Amboromana district of Vohemar, Madagascar. There are currently 360 families living in the area, with a population of 1,836 people. 

Purchase and install 1 water pump to expand the production of rice in the community. Morarano Chrome is a town and commune in the Eastern part of Madagascar. Over 150 people who work in the fields, and their families, will benefit from the project. 

Built 3 wells and 1 dam in three neighboring fokontanies (neighborhoods) of Anjiro: Mahatsinjo, Antanetibe, and Ambilobe. Anjiro is a rural community located in the central highlands of Madagascar. It has a population of about 15,000 people. 

Replace 1 broken handpump at the site with a sealed well lined with concrete rings, and an electronic pump for the Special Community Reserve of Analalava, a protected rainforest on the east coast of Madagascar, owned by the local community. This project immediately benefitted 150+ people and has since benefitted thousands of tourists. 

Build 2 new public latrines, with lined and displaced pits and ventilation. The facilities will be made available for use by the students and villagers.of Morarano, a rural village located 12 km southwest of the beach town of Foulpointe on the east coast of Madagascar. About 150 people live in the village center. However, the presence of an elementary school means 270 students come in from the surrounding hills on a daily basis: a total of 420 people. 

Build 1 public biogas toilet for the community that uses human waste as a valuable resource that can be converted into two products: (1) gas for cooking and (2) fertilizer. The project was located in the beautiful coastal community of Ambonivato, about 8 miles outside of Tamatave, the second largest city in Madagascar. Though it is close to the city, the village of 750 people is still a very poor and rural village. 

1 bathroom facility with 3 toilets, 3 urinals, and 3 sinks for Association Mitsinjo, an association of local guides.  Mitsinjo is located 2 km from the village of Andasibe, but its impact zone is much larger. It is the manager of the Torotorofotsy wetlands, a Ramsar site, as well as the Analamazaotra forest station. The facility will benefit the association through the 3,000+ tourists that visit annually. 

1 new, high-quality, composting latrine behind the clinic which can be used by all of the approximately 300 patients, health workers, nurses, and the doctor in Tsivangiana, a rice-farming and fishing village near the east coast of Madagascar. There is a major water sanitation problem, with a couple of stagnant streams used for everything from bathing, to washing clothes, to washing dishes, to collecting water for cooking and other household uses. 

1 new well in the village of Ambavala, located on the tropical and beautiful northeast coast of the island nation of Madagascar. This rather large village of nearly 300 people depends on only one well for all of their daily water needs.  

1 refurbished non-functioning well. Mahajoanivo is a small rural village in the Central Highlands of Madagascar. Mahajoanivo has 211 residents; most are farmers. 

Install 6 pumps in existing wells for use in 6 different cooperatives, including the rice cooperative, garden cooperative, and women’s gardening group, to irrigate their crops. The cooperatives are located in Anketrakabe, a village of approximately 1,200 people located 47 km from Diego. 

1 tree nursery to create food security, increase the available water supply, and provide economic benefits to the 300,000 people in Mandritsara, a city and commune in northern Madagascar. 

1 rainwater harvesting system and 3 systems to remediate flooding problems for the three largest dormitories on the Le Centre d’Accueil et de Transit des Jumeaux Abandonné (CATJA), an orphanage for 125 abandoned twin children. The orphanage is located in Mananjary, a seaside town in southeast Madagascar that is home to nearly 30,000 Malagasy whose livelihoods are very much integrated with their natural surroundings.  

5- Day Permagarden Staff and Volunteer Training and Training Design Creation; Peace Corps Madagascar requested assistance in the creation of a thorough Training Design and Evaluation Process that will guide the sustainable agriculture and nutrition security work of current and future Peace Corps Volunteers.  

13 wells provided to the 6 Fokotany (Villages) of Masomeloka, Antaniambo, Sohihy, Ampanotoana, Salehy, Andrianotsara, serving 15,000 people. 

1 shower facility to serve the Amporofor Clinic, which serves 12,543 people. Access to a shower with clean water and soap will reduce the risk of infection to the person, as well as reduce contamination by viruses and bacteria in the clinic area.  

Improve 4 wells, including the installation of 2 new pumps for Ambatomainty, a rural community of about 10,000 people located in the Alaotra Mangoro region, also known as the ‘rice basket’ of Madagascar. For water, families were long forced to rely on a river that has turned red from mud and erosion. 

1 well built between the local elementary school and the community center of Antsakoana, a small village south of the town Amparafaravola located in the Eastern part of Madagascar; well will benefit roughly 350 people. 

Improve 2 wells for the 1,000 people of Tsivangiana, who live along the east coast of Madagascar, separated from the Indian Ocean by about 20 kilometers of degraded rainforest. After the well broke, for the past three years the people have been fetching water from the stream.  

1 well and 1 new pump for a second well; the project recipient facility, Centre Hospitalier de District (CHD), benefits 2,000 people per month who attend the health facilities. 

2 wells were built for the village of Andonaka, located on the east coast of Madagascar, 12 km west of the commune and district capital Nosy Varika and accessible only by boat. No potable water exists for the 1,270 residents of Andonaka; all water is drawn from the Sakeleneoa River which also serves as a bath, laundry, and dishwashing source as well. 

1 well and a reconstructed aqueduct provided to the mountain town of Imito, located 224 km south of Antananarivo, the capital of Madagascar. Zanabahona is one of the largest communities in Imito with a population of 2,300. Project conducted by Peace Corp Volunteer and local NGO. 

Purchase and installation of a water pump for use by the members of Fanilo, the local farmers association in Antsakoana, a small town north of the town Amparafaravola, located in the Eastern part of Madagascar. The project gave the water control needed for the planting of currently unused rice fields. The project benefitted 280 people who work in the fields and their families. 

1 well provided to Morarano, a rural village located 12 km southwest of the beach town of Foulpointe on the east coast of Madagascar. About 150 people live in the village center and 270 students come in from the surrounding hills on a daily basis: a total of 420. In a polluted pool, people bathe and wash laundry and dishes before taking the water home to cook and drink. The work was conducted by a school teacher with experience in digging lined latrines, a Peace Corps Volunteer, and a motivated health worker who lives in the village. 

3 wells built in three different communities in northern Madagascar, carried out under the direction of a Peace Corps Volunteer and a local NGO ARES, which has organized teams to build over 50 wells. The three towns are in the commune of Anjangoveratra, district of Sambava: Antanandava, Anamboafo, and Marolamba, with a total population of 3,419, and no wells. Residents have to get their water from rivers, streams, and even rice paddies, which are polluted by cow and human waste. Several deaths in the towns in the past year have been attributed to water contamination. 

 4 wells built in the Amboromana district of Vohemar, Madagascar, which has a population of 1,836 people. People have to fetch water from a very distant dirty river, or do without. Oversight of the well construction was undertaken by ARES, a local NGO and Sister Rosalie, a Malagasy local. 

5 wells improved in Anjangoveratra, which has a population of about 4,000. Project was overseen by a local health worker, the head of the women’s organization, as well as the Peace Corps Volunteer. 

2 wells built for 2,200 people, about 600 of them children under 5. There is a local primary public school and a local Antsikory Women’s Group. Most community members use the local stream to collect water. Many of the children in the village of Antsikory suffer from diarrheal diseases and schistosomiasis, a disease caused by infection with freshwater parasitic worms in certain tropical and subtropical countries. The project is overseen by Peace Corps Volunteer, in cooperation with the Women’s Group.

In addition to our normal flow of well repairs, we have done this great work at Mandritsara hospital. Check out the details below:

Mandritsara Hospital

After drilling 40 meters of fractured volcanic rock, it was tested at 2500 liters/hour, the maximum capability with the testing equipment, and will be able to supply the hospital’s needs for years to come. A year ago, one of the surgeons there asked if we could help with their water problems. The municipal system goes dry for 4+ months each year and their private well can supply only 10% of their needs.

It’s difficult to do surgery and provide medical care in a fully functional hospital without enough water. The local and volunteer expat medical staff just grin and bear it, but their hands are already full living and practicing medicine in conditions long past in the modern world.  Their spirit and positive outlook are an inspiration to keep going.  Good News Hospital — Friends of Mandritsara Trust

Update on Mandritsara Hospital

The Madagascar Water Project just broke new ground by drilling a deep well in volcanic basalt, tapping into natural fractures to get water production. This is the first time the Project has drilled this deep, in this environment, using a drilling rig. 

We received a request from the Good News Hospital — Friends of Mandritsara Trust for help with their annual water shortage. The municipal system in Mandritsara, a village of 30k people, feeds off a river that goes dry every year. The hospital has two wells that provide some relief but it is only 1/10th the volume normally needed. The hospital is expanding and needs reliable water supplies year-round. 

The Project conducted field geology studies and used a geophysical study made by the hospital at the time of its initial construction in the 1990’s to identify a prospective location. The initial hole had to be abandoned at 11m due to a stuck pipe, but the second hole was successfully drilled to 40m without problems. The well tested 2500 liters/hour, which was the limit of the testing equipment, but it is likely capable of producing at twice that rate. The well is located in a rice field adjacent to the hospital complex and a 600-meter pipeline will tie it into their existing water system.

Check out the video below related to this project:

Ebeye Water Filter Distribution—The Marshall Islands 

Ebeye Water Filter Distribution—The Marshall Islands 

Ebeye Water Filter Distribution—The Marshall Islands 

This project has been completed. To read about the beginning of the project, CLICK HERE.

Since 2021, Water Charity has partnered with and supported Kora in Okrane (KIO), a non-profit charitable organization in the Marshall Islands, which in July 2018 launched an initiative to provide every single household, school, and dispensary in the outer islands with SAWYER Point One Water Filter Systems. 

Water Charity is one among a number of partners that have been supporting the KIO’s initiatives including the United Nations Development Program and GEF Program, RMI government, SDG Committee, Ministry of Health and Human Services, Ministry of Natural Resources and Commerce, Environmental Protection Authority, and Women United Together Marshall Islands.

Since 2018, KIO distributed filters to all the outer Islands. Its partnership with Water Charity will help KIO reach the last urban areas in the Marshall Islands. In 2021, the last remaining areas left to distribute water filtration systems were Majuro and Ebeye.

After completing Majuro, KIO started Phase 2 with the Launch of the Ebeye Component. Ebeye has 10,000 residents and is the second most populated jurisdiction in the Marshalls. The team from Majuro joined members on Ebeye for a week in early March, to train the women volunteers and conduct community consultations.

It was serendipitous timing because, on April 19th, 2022, the Ebeye Hospital Syndromic Surveillance reported of a diarrheal outbreak. The laboratory department confirmed the presence of  Entamoeba Cysts (E‐cysts): a microscopic parasite that spreads through human feces and causes diarrhea, nausea, and weight loss.

A landmark child nutrition survey in 2017 by the Republic of Marshall Islands and UNICEF found serious malnutrition among Marshallese children, with stunting prevalent among one‐in‐three children, with links to poor sanitation and lack of clean water. Ebeye is known to be one of the most compactly populated places with no clean and safe water where waterborne diseases have been a pervasive threat.

The project allowed the distribution of water filters to eleven villages. Household-level surveys, as well as community-wide consultation and training, were conducted prior to distributing the filters.

Foni Jarrol District Handpump Repair Tour Phase Three—The Gambia

Foni Jarrol District Handpump Repair Tour Phase Three—The Gambia

Foni Jarrol District Handpump Repair Tour Phase Three—The Gambia

Foni Jarrol is one of the nine districts of The West Coast Region, which is located to the south of the Gambia River in the southwest of the country. Foni Jarrol is in the far east of the region, between Foni Bondali and the border with Senegal. The district is widely dominated by the Jola tribe and is well known for its traditional cultural festival called “Futampaf.” This is a Jola traditional initiation ceremony which dates back centuries.

The district has played host to thousands of refugees fleeing the Southern Senegalese region of Casamance’s crisis, which saw fighting between Senegalese forces and Casamance separatist rebels. This has posed serious difficulties—both economic and social—affecting the district, including the scarcity of clean drinking water. Environmental issues are still persistent due to illegal logging, causing mass deforestation within the district.

KOLLEY KUNDA (GPS: N13°10.281 W015°48.943) Population: 250

2 Conversion heads, 2 new cylinders (twin pump) check-nuts, rod couplings, 12 centralizers, 4 stainless steel pipes, handwashing station, the contractor will construct a new water trough for the village ruminants to drink from, which will help the community economically.

BRUMEN (GPS: N13°14.842 W015°49.945) Population: 300

1 conversion, dewatering and sanitizing the well, ground concrete fortification, and handwashing station. The contractor will construct a new trough for the village ruminants to drink from, which will help the community economically.

AHDULAI (GPS: N13°12.684 W015°52.317) Population: 350 

New cylinder, 1 conversion head, rod couplings (stainless steel), dewatering and sanitizing the well, plus handwashing station. The contractor will construct a new trough for the village ruminants to drink from, which will help the community economically.

JARROL (GPS: N13°14.544 W015°50.731) Population: 400 

1 Conversion head, new cylinder, 2 stainless steel pipes, re-digging the well extra 2 meters, de-watering and sanitizing well, handwashing station, new concrete slab. The contractor will construct a new water trough for the village ruminants to drink from, which will help the community economically.

KALAGI VILLAGE (GPS: N13°14.817 W015°50.203) Population: 950

New cylinder, conversion head, dewatering and sanitizing well, rod couplings. 6 stainless steel pipes, 6 centralizers, concrete slab, and handwashing station. The contractor will construct a new trough for the village ruminants to drink from, which will help the community economically.

Rural Community and Clinic Water Program, Centrale Region, Togo (Summary of FINAL ROUND 3)

Rural Community and Clinic Water Program, Centrale Region, Togo (Summary of FINAL ROUND 3)

Rural Community and Clinic Water Program, Centrale Region, Togo (Summary of FINAL ROUND 3)

This project has been completed. To read about the beginning of the project, CLICK HERE. To read the SUMMARY OF ROUND 2, CLICK HERE.

To read the SUMMARY OF BOREHOLE WELL HYDRAULIC DATA, CLICK HERE.

Five additional clinic and community access borehole wells were completed during this final phase, all in the Sotouboua district of the Centrale Region, for a total of (13) clinics in 2022 and (15) in 2018.  As with all the prior phases, clinic sites were selected from a list provided by the regional Ministry of Health (and modified by field assessment), implemented by the same local Togolese hydraulic firm (Multi-Ingénieurs Conseil) and supported by the regional Department of Hydraulics (Ministry of Rural Water and Sanitation). Assuming all households in the vicinity utilize the potable water source at the clinic, on average 3,500 more community members will benefit from the potable water provided at the new borehole wells, in addition to several thousand more benefiting as patients, particularly pregnant and birthing women and their relatives. Each of the (13) new sites are now equipped with lab-verified potable water from deep borehole wells ranging in depth from 52 to 145 meters, gravity-fed systems providing running water into the buildings, replacement/repair of indoor plumbing as needed, functioning faucets, water lines to some of the staff housing (paid by the clinic), a faucet outside the clinic for patient relative use and in all sites but one, community faucets on the water tower. The borehole water yields range from 2,150-7,200 liters/hr (with several in Rounds 1 and 2 exceeding 10,000 l/hr) indicating there is ample groundwater to supply all of these villages well into the future. The importance of deep borehole wells cannot be overstated as the majority of water sources in Togo in general are either unfiltered surface water or shallow 3-6 meter deep hand-dug wells where water infiltrates from the surface thereby collecting all of the waste and bacterial content from the land surface or moves laterally in the shallow subsurface from polluted streams or from latrines, buried waste dumps into these household water sources. All of the Water Charity borehole data from the 2018 to the current projects, have been incorporated into the national groundwater database, allowing for the communities served through this rural water project to be supplied with ample potable water well into the future if there are funds allocated to extend the current plumbing infrastructure. Most NGO well installations are implemented without the knowledge or participation of the regional government water agencies thus resulting in poor installation, a lack of follow-up and missed opportunities for augmenting local water supply.  Each clinic was provided with a site-specific operation and maintenance manual during the official opening. As with the two earlier phases and those from 2018, the after-birth systems (delineated below with an “*”) includes a simple bucket-flush (except for those clinics with pre-existing flush basin) vessel for after-birth discharge, a dedicated cement-lined septic tank, floor and birthing table drains and functioning indoor plumbing. This may be one of the most important contributions to the clinics themselves, as hygienic disposal of blood and tissue protects the staff and patients against blood-borne diseases, like Ebola. Not to mention, the privacy and hygienic conditions for both the midwife, patient, and relatives. Indoor plumbing of potable water allows the clinic staff and the patient community to benefit from microbial-free water and proper cleaning, anti-septic handwashing and cleaning of surfaces and laboratory equipment. The benefits of bacteria-free water are known the world over. Each borehole well was sampled once drilling was completed and analyzed at the regional government laboratory for microbial and inorganic constituents and the results compare to WHO standards. All (28) borehole wells completed in 2018 and 2022 meet or exceed the WHO standards. The original copies of the lab reports were given to each clinic head. Copies have been provided in all reports submitted by the program lead to Water Charity along with geologic borehole cross sections. While the world, in general, appears eager to “go solar”, the reality in Togo is there is a lack of trained technicians coupled to the very poor quality of imported solar panels.  With the exception of very simple arrays designed to light a few light bulbs in the clinics, non-functioning solar panels and by extension malfunctioning solar-powered water pumps are in evidence throughout the region.

SITE NAME OF RURAL CLINIC : Sotouboua Prefecture

To see related videos to this project. Click Here.

BALANKA

Balanka is situated in the district of Tchamba near the Benin border. Its 10,700 inhabitants are predominantly Muslim of the Anii ethnic group. While a trading center, those not involved directly in commerce are subsistence farmers. The government installed a municipal water system in 2017, which was to provide the clinic with running water however the poor quality infrastructure (broken pipes, poor water pressure and quality) left the clinic and maternity building without running water.  The original clinic is of the same manner as most of the project sites; two buildings were built in 1994 of banco brick with an unpotable, open-well water source. In 2017, a new modern maternity building was built by a Togolese member of the community living in France, financed by both his association and his in-laws. Completed in 2018, this modern birthing center is equipped with an ultra-sound machine and several flush toilets and showers, but lacked running water. The only water source was the open well situated between the two buildings. The clinic at Balanka was not on the Ministry of Health list as a center needing water, rather the head midwife who had benefitted from Water Charity’s borehole program in 2018, mentioned the lack of water and the need for a borehole water system, as the sole water source for both the maternity center and clinic was the open well. Given the substantial resources already allocated to build the maternity center (which sees on average 40 births per month), Water Charity added Balanka to the project list with some assistance from the donors in France. There is electric power in Balanka. The borehole yielded 3,200 liters/hr at a depth of 90 meters, sufficient for equipping the two buildings and for the needs of the neighboring households. The cement water tower is higher than at the other sites given the extensive plumbing needed in the maternity center. Given the rather complex plumbing in the maternity building (i.e. numerous toilets and showers), there will be a need for frequent maintenance and upkeep.

AFFOSSALA

After the initial meeting in March, 2022 with members of the hydraulic team (in front holding notebooks), clinic staff and members of the community

Affossala, located in the Tchamba prefecture, is a large village of 10,500 inhabitants comprised of Bagué, the original inhabitants, Kabyé, Losso, Kotikoli, Moba and Peuhl (Fulani), both nomadic and sedentary. All major religions are present, including “les hommes libres” i.e. free men! According to the head nurse!  Affossala is divided into (10) neighborhoods, each with their own head. Currently, the village has 4/6 functioning manual borehole wells. The clinic was built in 2005 by Plan International, a typical six-room cement-brick building with plumbing and no water source outside of the non-potable open well. Several years later the well was retrofitted with a metal water tower, a metal water tank, and a manual pump though with the same intermittent open water source. Prior to the current project, the clinic staff utilized a neighboring water source. Affossala has a municipal water project in development and was initially not slated to be included in the present project. However, after several weeks of bantering about with various village and government officials on why the village’s only health center was not prioritized for access to this “public” water system, the clinic head and the regional hydraulic director made a successful push for an independent water source. Municipal water systems in Togo are known for frequent malfunctions, sometimes for months at a time. At the time of drilling, a municipal waterline was in place in front of the clinic implying the neighborhood would receive community water. Early meetings with the community indicated there was little interest in assisting the clinic with the purchase of petrol for the generator or repairs. Given this and the presence of borehole wells nearby, the Affossala clinic was not equipped with community faucets on the water tower. Drilling down to a depth of 92 meters with a water yield of 2,150 liters/hr assures both potability and a long-lasting water source. The water system is the sole use of and responsibility of the clinic staff and patients. The pump is operated by a gas-powered generator. Affossala may be electrified in the coming year at which time the water pump can be converted to run-on electricity.

Opening day

KAZABOUA

The seat of the Canton, Kazaboua is comprised of (8) villages. The clinic was built in 2009 by an Arab NGO with the usual open-well water source. At the time of the initial visit, there were no borehole wells in the village of 6,500 inhabitants. As with the other villages, the population if of mixed ethnicity and religion, and subsistence farming (maize, yam, peanuts, soya and sorghum) the primary occupation with household livestock. The household are both dispersed i.e. homes adjacent to fields or grouped together. During the cultivation season (May-September) the number of people accessing the clinic well increases. There are few latrines in the village and none at the clinic. The clinic, with the assistance of the village, in 2019, installed a submersible pump to install running water into the building in addition to an after-birth discharge system. The clinic was listed as having water and was omitted from the list of planned projects until a visit indicated the source of water inside the clinic was from the non-potable open source well. There is electric power in the village. The borehole pump test yielded a high volume of water (6,700 l/hr) at a depth of 60 meters, sufficient to allow for an expansion of community access points in the future.

FAZAO

Fazao clinic with head nurse and pharmacist

Fazao, one of the most scenic villages, is situated next to a large natural reserve along the foothills of the Fazao mountains. The original settlement in this region of Sotouboua, Fazao is a Muslim community of cultivators and herders. Predominantly members of the Kotokoli and Tem ethnic groups (unusual in an area comprised mostly of Christian and animist Kabyé), the village has benefited from assistance from some of its members in Europe, part of the so-called “ Diaspora”. However, once again, the lack of oversight and poorly trained personnel resulted in failed water projects throughout the village. The clinic was built in 1992 and remodeled in 2017 with funds from the diaspora. There are (6) borehole wells in Fazao though currently, only three are working. Until very recently, there were no residential clinic staff in Fazao. As a result, the patient attendance is very low compared to other clinics however with the installment of a full-time nurse and midwife assistant, the number of patients seen at the clinic are rising. The community and its leaders are more motivated than many other project sites in addition to the community members willing to pay for water, an important element for the clinic as there is currently no electric power in Fazao thus requiring the purchase of diesel to run the pump generator. There are newly installed power poles in Fazao implying the village will be connected to the power grid sometime soon.  There are no lights in the clinic as the existing solar panels are no longer functioning. Nighttime Patient care and births are illuminated with cell phones. The borehole well yielded 5,300 liters/hr at a depth of 90 meters, far above the current clinic needs, however, the water shortage in the surrounding households and in the village, in general, will be adequately met now and into the foreseeable future as the population of Fazao increases.

MELAMBOUA

Melamboua is on the road to Fazao, one of the project sites in the district of Sotoubou. Another old clinic was built in 1990 by the NGO Plan International. A typical 6-room brick building without electricity or potable water, serving a population of 5,500 inhabitants scattered about (14) villages. The existing water source is the standard shallow open well used by the nearby households. In 2016, according to a plaque on the metal tower, the Red Cross added the water tower, a hand crank pump, and plumbing into the building however no changes in the water source, which remained non-potable. The entire apparatus ceased functioning within the year. The village is comprised predominantly of Kabyé ethnic group however there are both nomadic and sedentary Fulani. A high water yield of 7,200 liters/hr was reached at 60 meters, sufficient to supply the community with potable water for several years to come assuming the water system is well maintained. While the clinic did not have electric power at the start of the project, the regional Ministry of Health director accelerated the positioning of an electric meter and within a few weeks of the center had electricity and the water pump was hooked up accordingly.

Foni Jarrol District Handpump Repair Tour Phase Two—The Gambia 

Foni Jarrol District Handpump Repair Tour Phase Two—The Gambia 

Foni Jarrol District Handpump Repair Tour Phase Two—The Gambia